Faculty of Natural
Comenius University Bratislava

Project "Dating..."


Dating of main stages of the Western Carpathians land surface evolution

Financial support

Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences ("VEGA"), Bratislava 

Registration number

VEGA č. 1/0602/16

Principal investigator 

prof. RNDr. Jozef Minár, CSc.  contact

Period to solve

January 2016 – December 2019



Project summary

Information on the uplift dynamics in the end of Miocene and during Pliocene will be gained by thermochronology methods (ZFT, AFT and Apatite (U-Th)/He) on profiles through expressive fault slopes of neotectonically most active mountains. Current analyses (AFT data together with correlate sediments analysis) indicate conditions to the intramountain level creation during Late Miocene. However, to making precise morphotectonics trend during Pliocene thermochronological data with lower closing temperature are necessary. Application of selected methods of cosmogenic nuclids dating (with sufficient time span, as Be10, Cl36), ESR (electron spin resonance) and other geochronological methods will cover the following period of the end of Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. Analyzing of the situation in different regions of the Western Carpathians and effective extrapolation of information on the basis of the new morphostructural regionalization is necessary for the making more precise time-spatial picture.

Key words

Western Carpathians; planation surfaces; river terraces; thermochronology; cosmogenic nuclides.

Scientific goals (planed)
  1. To make more precise the period of probable intramountain (mid-mountain) level forming in the Western Carpathians on the basis of new thermochronological data compared with character of sediments records in basins and simultaneously to test possible character of the intramountain level as a tectoplain.
  2. To specify in new thermochronological data (mainly Apatite (U-Th)/He) the first stage of the tectonic uplift of the Western Carpathians during Pliocene and to try to define its intensity.
  3. To try specify the period of forming of pediments (mainly river level and underintramountain level) by combination of results gained by low temperature thermochronology and analysis of Pliocene and oldest Quaternary sediments and surfaces (by dating with methods of cosmogenic nuclides, electron spin resonance etc.) in context of comprehensive research of geomorphological evolution of analysed regions.
  4. From the complex of new gained and already published data on the age of river terraces and cave levels to try to define start and possible finish of the second (Quaternary) period of neotectonic uplift of the Western Carpathians, and by modelling of influence of cyclic lithosphere loading and rebound on elastic crust and viscoelastic mantle reaction in neighbourhood of the region to try to test the hypothesis on possible influence of glacioisostatic effects on the second neotectonic uplift origin and course.
  5. To create a new morphostructural regionalization of the Western Carpathians for effective spatial extrapolation of data gained, that will minimize subjective approach by using own developed innovative algorithms of geomorphometric analysis.

The most important result (annotation)

A character of Lower Volkovce formation (Šujan et al., 2017) confirms the Late Miocene age and semi-arid environment of the intramountain level formation. Dating of the highest caves infill (Bella et al., 2019) points to short intensive uplift events during Pontian (Early Pliocene), Early and Middle Pleistocene, separated by stages of the underintramountain and river-side levels formation. The start of the first neo-tectonic event is timed in line with the Messinian salinity crisis. The last two tectonic events are very markedly reflected also in the Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments of the Danube Basin. It is conspicuous that they begin in the line with the change of character of glacial cycles: cca 2,6 and cca 1,2 Ma (Šujan et al., 2018). Early and Middle Pleistocene neotectonic events are much important then was till now supposed. It is confirmed by modelling of conditions necessary for the preservation of remnants of intramountain level in the Tribeč and Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Staškovanová & Minár, 2016).

Certificate of the Agency

Certificate of successful completion of the project in 2019 and the achievement of excellent results by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences ("VEGA"), Bratislava (in Slovak)  >>

Publications (project outputs)


VITOVIČ, Ladislav, MINÁR, Jozef, BELLA, Pavel & LITTVA, Juraj: Polygenetic relief in the foreland of glacially sculptured mountains – Podtatranská kotlina Basin. In: LEHOTSKÝ, M. & BOLTIŽIAR, M., eds., Landscapes and Landforms of Slovakia. World Geomorphological Landscapes. Cham: Springer, 2022, s. 163-188. ISBN 978-3-030-89292-0.


VITOVIČ, Ladislav, MINÁR, Jozef & PÁNEK, Tomáš: Morphotectonic configuration of the Podtatranská Kotlina Basin and its relationship to the origin of the Western Carpathians. In: Geomorphology. 2021, December, Vol. 394, Art. No. 107963. ISSN 0169-555X.


VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Analysis of fluvial systems in the vicinity of Bežan Hill (Liptovská kotlina Basin, Western Carpathians). In: Geografické informácie. 2020, roč. 24, č. 1, s. 44-59. ISSN 1337-9453.
Available >

VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Verification of age of unpaired terraces of the Ľupčianka Stream (northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians). In: Geografické informácie. 2020, roč. 24, č. 1, s. 60-70. ISSN 1337-9453.
Available >


BELLA, Pavel, BOSÁK, Pavel, BRAUCHER, Régis, PRUNER, Petr, HERCMAN, Helena, MINÁR, Jozef, VESELSKÝ, Michal, HOLEC, Juraj & LÉANNI, Laëtitia: Multi-level Domica–Baradla cave system (Slovakia, Hungary): Middle Pliocene–Pleistocene evolution and implications for the denudation chronology of the Western Carpathians. In: Geomorphology. 2019, Vol. 327, p. 62-79. ISSN 0169-555X. 

MINÁR, Jozef & BANDURA, Peter: Interpretation of results of physically based morphostructural segmentation of the Western Carpathians. In: International Scientific Conference of the Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Geomorphological Commission: Programme, Abstracts, Field Trip Guides (June 24-27, 2019, Szeged Hungary). [Szeged]: Geomorphological Commitee of the HAS, 2019. P. 6.
> .PDF

VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Neotectonic evolution of the Poprad River valley in the eastern part of the Popradská kotlina Basin based on the river terraces analysis. In: Študentská vedecká konferencia PriF UK 2019: zborník recenzovaných príspevkov (9. 4. 2019 Bratislava) [online]. Bratislava: Univ. Komenského, 2019. P. 1231-1236. ISBN 978-80-223-4711-2. 
Proceedings > https://fns.uniba.sk/fileadmin/prif/svk/zborniky/Zbornik2019.pdf    |  > .PDF

VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Tectonic tilting detection based on analysis of drainage basin asymmetry: A case study of the Vrbovský Creek (Western Carpathians). In: Študentská vedecká konferencia PriF UK 2019: zborník recenzovaných príspevkov (9. 4. 2019 Bratislava) [online]. Bratislava: Univ. Komenského, 2019. P. 1225-1230. ISBN 978-80-223-4711-2.
Proceedings > https://fns.uniba.sk/fileadmin/prif/svk/zborniky/Zbornik2019.pdf    |  > .PDF 

VITOVIČ, Ladislav & MINÁR, Jozef: Morphometric analysis of the Podtatranská Kotlina Basin and its neotectonic interpretation. In: International Scientific Conference of the Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Geomorphological Commission: Programme, Abstracts, Field Trip Guides (June 24-27, 2019 Szeged, Hungary). [Szeged]: Geomorphological Commitee of the HAS, 2019. P. 7-8. 
> .PDF


BANDURA, Peter, MINÁR, Jozef, BIELIK, Miroslav & DRAGUT, Lucian: Physically-based segmentation of the Western Carpathians (Central Europe). In: PeerJ Preprints 6:e27083v.1. 4 pp.

HOLEC, Juraj, BEDNARIK, Martin, LIŠČÁK, Pavel, ŽILKA, Andrej & VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Assessment of debris flow susceptibility using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses and verification based on catastrophic events from 2014 in the Krivánska Fatra Mountains, Slovakia. In: Acta geologica slovaca. 2018, Vol. 10, Iss. 1, p. 1-19. ISSN 1338-0044.

LAČNÝ, Alexander, ŠUJAN, Michal, HÓK, Jozef, CSIBRI, Tamás, PUTIŠKA, René, DOSTÁL, Ivan & MOJZEŠ, Andrej: The Komberek karst area - An example of the basement rock influence on the morphology of karst sinkholes (Malé Karpaty Mts., Slovakia). In: Acta geologica slovaca. 2018, Vol. 10, Iss. 1, p. 151-164. ISSN 1338-0044. 

ŠUJAN, Michal, BRAUCHER, Régis, RYBÁR, Samuel, MAGLAY, Juraj, NAGY, Alexander, FORDINÁL, Klement, ŠARINOVÁ, Katarína, SÝKORA, Milan, JÓZSA, Štefan, ASTER Team & KOVÁČ, Michal: Revealing the late Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene alluvial archive in the confluence of the Western Carpathian and Eastern Alpine rivers: 26Al/10Be burial dating from the Danube Basin (Slovakia). In: Sedimentary Geology. 2018, Vol. 377, s. 131-146. ISSN 0037-0738.

VITOVIČ, Ladislav: Riečne terasy a intenzita erózie Váhu v Liptovskej kotline., [River terraces and rate of erosion of the Váh River in the Liptovská kotlina Basin]. In: Študentská vedecká konferencia PriF UK 2018: zborník recenzovaných príspevkov (25. 4. 2018 Bratislava) [online]. Bratislava: Univ. Komenského, 2018. P. 1345-1350. ISBN 978-80-223-4517-0. 
Proceedings > https://fns.uniba.sk/fileadmin/prif/svk/zborniky/zbornik2018.pdf   |  Article > .PDF

VITOVIČ, Ladislav & MINÁR, Jozef: Morphotectonic analysis for improvement of neotectonic subdivision of the Liptovská kotlina Basin (Western Carpathians). In: Geografický časopis. 2018, roč. 70, č. 3, p. 197-216. ISSN 0016-7193.
> https://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/09271345Vitovic,%20Minar.pdf

VITOVIČ, Ladislav & TIMKO, Juraj: Analýza štrkov riečnych terás Váhu v Liptovskej kotline., [Gravel analysis of the Váh River terraces in the Liptovská kotlina Basin]. In: Študentská vedecká konferencia PriF UK 2018: zborník recenzovaných príspevkov (25. 4. 2018 Bratislava) [online]. Bratislava: Univ. Komenského, 2018. P. 1351-1356. ISBN 978-80-223-4517-0. 
Proceedings > https://fns.uniba.sk/fileadmin/prif/svk/zborniky/zbornik2018.pdf   |  Article > .PDF


BANDURA, Peter, MINÁR, Jozef, DRAGUT, Lucian & HARCINÍKOVÁ, Tatiana: Evaluation of object-based image analysis for morphostructural subdivision of the Western Carpathians. In: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplement. 2017, Vol. 61, Nr. 2, s. 121-135. ISSN 1864-1687.
> http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/zfgs/2017/00000061/00000002/art00008

ŠUJAN, Michal, BRAUCHER, Régis, KOVÁČ, Michal, RYBÁR, Samuel, SCHITTENHELM, Andrea, MAGLAY, Juraj, FORDINÁL, Klement & NAGY, Alexander: Pliocene to quaternary alluvial depositional systems of the northern Danube Basin: application of the 10Be/26Al burial dating method on borehole samples. In: 7th International Workshop on the Neogene of Central and South Eastern Europe (Velika, Croatia, 28. – 31. 5. 2017). Zagreb: Croatian Geological Society, 2017. S. 68-69. ISBN 978-953-59036-2-8.

ŠUJAN, Michal, KOVÁČ, Michal, HÓK, Jozef, ŠUJAN, Martin, BRAUCHER, Régis, RYBÁR, Samuel & DE LEEUW, Arjan: Late Miocene fluvial distributary system in the northern Danube Basin (Pannonian Basin System) depositional processes, stratigraphic architecture and controlling factors of the Piešťany Member (Volkovce Formation). In: Geological Quarterly. 2017, Vol. 61, Iss. 3, s. 521-548. ISSN 1641-7291, eISSN 2082-5099.

ŠUJAN, Michal, LAČNÝ, Alexander, BRAUCHER, Régis, MAGDOLEN, Peter & ASTER Team: Early Pleistocene age of fluvial sediment in the Stará Garda Cave revealed by 26Al/10Be burial dating: implications for geomorphic evolution of the Malé Karpaty Mts. (Western Carpathians). In: Acta Carsologica. 2017, Vol. 46, No. 2-3, s. 251-264. ISSN 0583-6050.

VOJTKO, Rastislav, KRÁLIKOVÁ, Silvia, ANDRIESSEN, Paul, PROKEŠOVÁ, Roberta, MINÁR, Jozef & JEŘÁBEK, Petr: Geological evolution of the southwestern part of the Veporic Unit (Western Carpathians): based on fission track and morphotectonic data. In: Geologica Carpathica. 2017, Vol. 68, No. 4, s. 285-302. ISSN 1335-0552.


BANDURA, Peter: Multi-scale landform-based recognition of selected mountain peaks from DEMs in Slovakia. In: Geographia cassoviensis. 2016, Vol. X., č. 2, s. 107-121. ISSN 1337-6748.

BANDURA, Peter & MINÁR, Jozef: Object-based definition of morphostructures for the refinement of geomorphological division of Slovakia. In: Geomorphologia slovaca et bohemica. 2016, roč. 16, č. 1, s. 12. ISSN 1337-6799.  

BANDURA, Peter, MINÁR, Jozef, DRAGUT, Lucian & HARCINÍKOVÁ, Tatiana: Object-oriented morphostructural division of the Western Carpathians. In: Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Conference on Geomorphology: Abstracts & Guide Book (Postojna, Slovenia, 13 –17 September, 2016). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, 2016. S. 55. ISBN 978-961-254-932-9. 

STAŠKOVANOVÁ, Veronika & MINÁR, Jozef: Modelling the geomorphic history of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians) with the CHILD model. In: Open Geosciences. 2016, Vol. 8, Iss. 1, s. 371-398. ISSN 2391-5447.

ŠUJAN, Michal, KOVÁČ, Michal, RYBÁR, Samuel & SCHITTENHELM, Andrea: Late Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the alluvial landscape in the northern Danube Basin: interplay of sediment supply and forming of accommodation space. In: Environmental, Structural & Stratigraphical Evolution of the Western Carpathians: 10th ESSEWECA (Bratislava 1. – 2. 12. 2016): Abstract Book [online]. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského, 2016. S. 101-102. ISBN 978-80-223-4202-5.