Faculty of Natural
Comenius University Bratislava


Study plan   [daily form]   [external form]

Teachers     [daily form]   [external form]

Responsible persons

prof. RNDr. Hana Drahovská, PhD.  funkčné miesto profesor   [portál VŠ]

Osoby zabezpečujúce profilové predmety študijného programu:

RNDr. Ján Radvánszky, PhD.    [portál VŠ]

doc. RNDr. Ján Krahulec, PhD.    [portál VŠ]

doc. Mgr. Andrea Šoltýsová, PhD.    [portál VŠ]

doc. RNDr. Andrej Dudáš, PhD.    [portál VŠ]

Graduate profile and learning objectives

The institution defines the learning objectives of the study programme such as student's abilities at the time of completion of the programme and the main learning outcomes.

Biology study programme is focused on advanced knowledge within biological structures focusing on human biology, ecology, evolutionary biology and experimental plant biology. In the study part, a doctoral student within specialization from the above fields, gets the latest scientific knowledge, which is a prerequisite for passing the dissertation exam successfully. Scientific part includes solving scientific problems independently and creatively in the field of modern anthropological, evolutionary or ecological research. A doctoral student will be able to choose appropriate methods of basic and applied research and will be able to perform independent scientific work and interpretation of obtained results, as well. The doctoral student should be able to publish scientific work results and present them at scientific events. The results of creative experimental work contribute to the development of science and provide application in agriculture, forestry sector, medicine, pharmacology and in protection of the genetic pool of plants, animals and humans. A student graduating with a doctoral degree focused on anthropology, ecology and evolutionary biology will be able to formulate new hypotheses and strategies for further research and development in the biology field. Graduated doctoral students are able to apply the findings of comprehensive scientific research in the field of human biology, ecology and evolutionary biology. Based on outputs and findings, graduates are able to design, verify and implement new research and working procedures. Should be skilled in practical and experimental methods in biology, statistical methods and is able to apply knowledge from related scientific disciplines. The graduate should have an independent, critical and analytical thinking. A Graduate doctoral student takes into account social, scientific and ethical aspects when formulating research intentions and interpreting research results. Graduates are able to present independently the research results and further development on professional community level, such as scientific articles and scientific forums. Graduates should design the main aim of research and coordinate the scientific team in biological research. Part of education at the third level will also offer personal development, management skills and competences courses. Graduated students with doctoral degree are qualified to become an expert in experimental plant biology as well as a university teacher. Graduates are familiar with scientific research methods in the field of experimental plant biology, signalling pathways of physiological processes, explant cultures, monitoring the transport of substances in plants and their transformation, growth and differentiation of plant cells, plant metabolism and its behaviour in biotic and abiotic stress. Graduates study structure and function of a plant organism on various levels of its structural organization, starting with subcellular (molecular) level to the organism level with focusing on the molecular nature and interrelationships as well as mechanisms involved in the plant response to the organism as a whole. Graduates are familiar with biochemical, analytical methods, and methods of light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, which are combined with methods of molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics. The results of creative experimental work contribute to the development of science and scientific knowledge and can be used in applied research, especially in agriculture, forestry sector, horticulture and environmental protection. Many of the results used in breeding and genetic engineering can be a suitable source to create new cultivars both efficient and more suitable for either an environment burdened by the negative consequences of human activity or changing environmental conditions. Achieving a doctoral education will enable graduates to participate in solving scientific problems in specific field at all levels from individual molecular-biological and metabolic processes to the life manifestations of the whole plant. Theoretical knowledge and practical skills with experimental material acquired during doctoral study can be used in any type of experimental work in the field of experimental plant biology. At the same time, graduate gains practical experience in processing, interpretation and appropriate comparison of the obtained experimental results published in prestigious scientific journals. Professional erudition in performance and scientific expression is acquired by presenting experimental results at domestic and international scientific events and conferences.

The institution indicates the professions for which the graduate is prepared at the time of completion and the potential of the study programme from the point of view of graduate's employability.

Graduated doctoral students are able to find employment at universities specialized in biology, ecology, evolutionary biology or anthropology. Being familiar with a wide range of provided knowledge, the graduate finds employment in the field of the Ministry of Health(screening laboratories for genetic diseases, centres for reproductive medicine, etc.), Ministry of Culture, Sports, in institutions using knowledge about the relationship between human and the working environment (industrial design, occupational medicine, architecture and technology), in state institutions dealing with nature and environmental protection (State Nature Protection of the Slovak Republic, Slovak Environmental Inspectorate, Slovak Environment Agency, relevant ministries and offices), institutes of the Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture (e.g. Water Research Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute), private companies conducting biological and ecological surveys, environmental impact assessments or in special research areas at the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic. Students graduated with a doctoral degree focused on ecology and evolutionary biology will also be able to find employment in non-governmental organizations, especially in conservation organizations both at home and abroad.
Students graduated with doctoral degree focused on experimental plant biology are able to find an employment as university teachers or scientists at the universities, other educational and developmental institutes, including institutes of scientific academies. Graduates can work as controllers and professionals in governmental, research, controlling and testing institutes, as well as at Ministry of Environment and environmentally focused district offices. Graduates may find an employment in a private sector as researchers, developers and professionals in pharmaceutic and chemical industry, in agriculture, breeding and biotechnological companies, e. g. focused on biofuels and biologically active compounds production; decontamination of polluted areas; processing of biowaste; reproduction clinics (the last mentioned is able due to the education of microscopical techniques and software analysis of digital images).


Current demand of graduates is mainly at the department of health, environment, economy, culture (museums) and education (universities, primary and secondary school), in academic area (public and private research and development workplaces), in companies, which are carrying out biotechnological production, biological and ecological surveys, assessing environmental impact, improving agricultural production, using environmentally acceptable and sustainable process in producing energy, food, substrates and other substances, or decontaminating the environment from pollutants of natural and anthropogenic origin. Graduates can also be employed in non-governmental organizations focused on environmental protection.


For individual study plans, the institution states the requirements for completing the individual parts of the study programme and the student's progress within the study programme in the given structure:

- Number of credits for compulsory courses: 40 credits (applied to all modules) + 15 credits for dissertation exam and 30 credits for the    defense of the dissertation thesis
- Number of credits for compulsory optional courses: 10 credits (applied to all modules)
- Number of credits for optional courses: according to modules - anthropology 17; ecology and evolution biology 27; experimental plant biology 17
- credits for research activities 221 credits (applied to all modules) and other activities (e.g. teaching activities) 49 credits (applied to all modules)
- Number of credits for the dissertation exam: 15
- Number of credits for the dissertation defence: 30